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Authors Pierre Bois D’Enghien

Davos and Food security: The facts on oilseed efficiency

In the debate over the sustainability of palm oil, an important parameter to consider is the yield of the plantations – in effect, the efficiency by which each oil is produced, and the amount of land it takes up.

Why is this an important metric ? Because it can tell us about the global environmental impact of the crop.

Oil palm’s great advantage is that it can meet both the economic and environmental criteria at once: the maximum production level, and maximum returns for the farmers, using the minimum surface area (meaning that more land can be preserved for conservation).

Now the world average yield of oil palm is 3.9 tons of oil per hectare per year. This corresponds to 5 or 10 times the per hectare production of other oilseeds (such as sunflower, rapeseed, ….) This means a land-area saving of 90%. That is worth repeating: in comparison to other oilseeds, oil palm saves 90% more land, because of its superior yield.

Some oil palm plantations – at the higher end of the industry – have an exceptional yield of 8 tonnes per hectare per year and further enhance the attractiveness of this crop. It is beyond anything the competing oils can hope for.

  • Rapeseed, has a production of 0.7 tonnes of oil / ha / year;
  • Sunflower, oil of 0.6 tonnes / ha / year;
  • Soybean oil 0.4 tonnes / ha / year.

It is therefore clear that the production of palm oil is more environmentally friendly in terms of land use, by a very large margin. Oil palm has the highest yield per hectare of all oilseed crops.

This production has grown steadily, moving from 15.2 million tonnes in 1995 to 60 million tonnes in 2014. Remarkably, to produce all of the global palm oil, we need less than half the area required to produce the same amount of oil along with all other oilseeds (sunflower, soybeans, rapeseed). Palm oil uses only 0.3% of the world’s land area, and yet produces over 30% of all of the world’s oils and fats.

It should also be remembered that this yield can be improved significantly. Smallholders make a vital contribution to global palm oil production, yet their per hectare yields are low when compared with large plantation companies. Smallholders also have a large share of global plantation area – 40 per cent in Malaysia, 90 per cent in Nigeria. Improvements to smallholder yields across the globe will substantially improve global yields – and the livelihoods of smallholders.

Not only does palm oil have a superior yield, it has multiple other environmental benefits compared to competing oilseeds –

  • Substantially less fertiliser use
  • Fewer pesticides needed to produce the oil
  • Lower energy input needed per tonne of oil

Add to this that palm oil is the only oilseed crop that has a number of widely adopted certification standards for sustainability.

The conclusion: don’t believe what you read. Palm oil has the best environmental profile – for land use, pesticides fertilisers, and energy input – of any vegetable oil anywhere in the world.

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Pierre Bois D’Enghien The Oil Palm

Protéger la biodiversité et les ressources naturelles

La biodiversité et les ressources naturelles sont-elles bien protégées au sein de la filière huile de palme ? Les petits producteurs, premiers sur le terrain, avancent-ils efficacement vers davantage de durabilité ?

Tout d’abord commençons par resituer le contexte. En termes de gain de productivité, il est utile de rappeler que pour une même quantité d’huile végétale produite, le palmier à huile a besoin de 8 à 10 fois moins de superficie qu’une autre culture oléagineuse annuelle.

La conséquence directe étant que parce qu’elle nécessite moins d’espace, la culture de du palmier à huile permet au petit producteur de préserver plus d’espaces naturels et, par cela, plus de biodiversité.

Ensuite si on s’attache à la plantation elle-même et qu’on la compare aux autres cultures, il est clair que le palmier à huile héberge plus de biodiversité. Comme plante arborescente, elle crée un habitat pour plusieurs dizaines d’espèces végétales et animales. Les plantes épiphytes s’y développent harmonieusement et beaucoup d’insectes (fourmis, etc.) y trouvent des zones favorables à leur développement. C’est loin d’être un désert de biodiversité, comme peuvent l’être les cultures de soja ou de colza.

Enfin si on en vient maintenant aux mesures conservatoires, on constate que la filière industrielle a développé un process unique et fait des efforts considérables pour la préservation et le développement de la biodiversité. Les Principes et Critères RSPO apportent une attention importante à la préservation de la biodiversité et des ressources naturelles (sol, énergie, air, eau).

La couverture du sol par les plantes légumineuses et l’interdiction de planter sur les pentes trop fortes, limite l’érosion et la destruction des sols.

L’utilisation de biocombustibles (coques et fibres provenant de l’usinage lui-même) pour produire électricité et vapeur, limite le recours aux énergies fossiles au strict minimum.

La plantation de palmier à huile n’a besoin que de très peu de produits phytosanitaires et d’engrais chimiques pour être saine et rentable; la production d’huile « issue de l’agriculture biologique » est aisée et permet de protéger les ressources en eaux de surface et souterraines.

Un rendement élevé qui permet de concentrer la productivité sur de faibles superficies, une culture qui héberge naturellement de nombreuses espèces, des mesures conservatoires très strictes mises en œuvre par la filière… la biodiversité et les ressources naturelles sont entre de bonnes mains, celles de petits producteurs soucieux de préserver leur environnement.

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Authors Pierre Bois D’Enghien

Protecting Biodiversity and Natural Resources

As an expert in environment and agriculture, I have been studying and working with oil palm for many years. I have worked with the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) and many other sustainability-focused initiatives, and the question of protecting biodiversity is always at the top of people’s minds.

A question many people ask me is whether biodiversity is well-protected within the palm oil industry? Are the small producers, for example, advancing effectively towards greater sustainability?

First, we must start by looking at the context. In terms of productivity gains, it is worth recalling that for the same amount of vegetable oil produced, oil palm needs 8 to 10 times less surface area than other perennial oilseed crops.

The direct consequence is that because it requires less space, the cultivation of oil palm allows small producers to preserve more natural areas, and therefore, more biodiversity.

Then, if one focuses on the plantation itself compared to other crops, it is clear that oil palm hosts more biodiversity. As a tree plant, it creates a habitat for dozens of plant and animal species. Epiphytic plants develop there harmoniously and many insects (ants, etc.) find en environment there, which is favourable to their development. This is far more biodiverse than crops such as soy or canola.

There have been numerous studies examining biodiversity on oil palm plantations.

In Africa, for example, it has been well documented that oil palm provides edible resources for: chimpanzee species,[1] Thomas’s rope squirrels ; white-throated bee-eaters (Merops albicollis); southern yellow-billed hornbills ; and oil-palm vultures.

In Latin America, black vultures (Coragyps stratus)[2] and white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus)[3] are among the species living around and within oil palm plantations.

In Southeast Asia, the plant also provides a range of uses and habitats. According to one study in Sumatra, 38 non-domesticated mammals were found using palm oil plantations.[4] The report also noted that almost two-thirds of these have an important conservation value or are protected under national law, and 25% are listed as vulnerable or higher on IUCN red lists.

A study on the Malaysian peninsula suggested a thriving population of the banded pig (Sus scrofa vittatus[5]. Other animal life includes long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis) and pig-tailed (Macaca. nemestrina) macaques[6].

Bird species such as Pycnonotus goiavier, Prinia spp., Parus major, Copsychus saularis, and Halcyon smyrnensis are all visitors to oil palm plantations (Desmier de Chenon and Susanto, 2006), as well as threatened species such as blood pythons (Python brongersmai) and short-tailed pythons (Python curtus).

Even the most recent report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change noted that: “When combined with agroforestry, palm oil plantations can increase food production locally and have a positive impact on biodiversity.”

When it comes to precautionary measures now, we see that the sector has developed a unique process and made considerable efforts for the preservation and development of biodiversity. RSPO’s Principles and Criteria for example, pay significant attention to the preservation of biodiversity and natural resources (land, energy, air, water).

Soil cover by leguminous plants and the planting ban on slopes that are too steep, limiting erosion and soil destruction, are examples. The use of biofuels (shells and fiber from the processing itself) to produce electricity and steam, limits the use of fossil fuels to a minimum.

Oil palm plantations need few pesticides and chemical fertilizers to be healthy and profitable; in addition, farmers have developed integrated pest management techniques (pheromones to trap insects, creating attractive hedges and bushes that can serve as habitat for pest predators, maintaining an owl nest every 25 ha to promote the circulation of birds of prey that feed on rats, etc.). Thus, oil production helps protect surface water and groundwater resources.

High efficiency levels allow the industry to focus productivity in small areas, a culture that is naturally home to many species, with strict protective measures implemented by the sector … biodiversity and natural resources are in good hands, those of small and large palm oil producers anxious to preserve their environment.

I’ll be visiting Malaysia in the first part of 2016 to conduct further field research on the biodiversity in oil palm plantations, and the wider environmental conservation efforts undertaken in the country. I’ll be talking to companies, NGOs, officials, and other stakeholders, and I will be updating this blog with details of my findings.

 

[1] Humle T and Matsuzawa T (2004) Oil palm use by adjacent communities of chimpanzees at Bossou and Nimba Mountains, West Africa. International Journal of Primatology 25: 551–581; Leciak E, Hladik A, and Hladik CM (2005) The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and the cores of high biodiversity in gallery forests of Guinea in relation to human and chimpanzees commensalism. Revue d’Ecologie-La Terre et la Vie 60: 179–184; Sousa J, Barata AV, Sousa C, Casanova CCN, and Vicente L (2011) Chimpanzee Oil-Palm Use in Southern Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau. American Journal of Primatology 73: 485–497.

[2] Elias DJ and Dubost DVG (1982) Unusual feeding behavior by a population of Black Vultures. Wilson Bulletin 94: 214.

[3] McKinney T (2010) The effects of provisioning and crop-raiding on the diet and foraging activities of human-commensal white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). American Journal of Primatology 73: 439–448.

[4] Maddox T, Priatna D, Gemita E, and Salampessy A (2007) The Conservation of Tigers and Other Wildlife in Oil Palm Plantations Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. London, UK: The Zoological Society of London. ZSL Conservation Report No. 7.

[5] Ickes K (2001) Hyper-abundance of native wild pigs (Sus scrofa) in a lowland dipterocarp rain forest of Peninsular Malaysia. Biotropica 33: 682–690.

[6] Meijaard Erik, and Sheil Douglas (2013) Oil-Palm Plantations in the Context of Biodiversity Conservation. In: Levin S.A. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, second edition, Volume 5, pp. 600-612. Waltham, MA: Academic Press.

 

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Authors Pierre Bois D’Enghien

Greens Propose Harming the Environment

Some interesting news in Paris: Green Senators have proposed an amendment that could harm the environment, lead to more forest land being lost, and affect poor people in developing countries.

Aline Archimbaud, a Green Senator, has submitted amendments to the Health Law criticizing palm oil. She makes clear that the amendment would like to protect the environment, and also to help solve malnutrition, hunger, and other problems affecting the poor.

Unfortunately, this is clearly an attempt to score an ‘easy’ political point, because the facts are simply wrong. This was also proven by Minister Segolene Royal, after her ill-judged comments against Nutella. I wrote to the Minister at the time, explaining why she was wrong. Minister Royal eventually realized the error of her ways; she accepted that she was wrong on the facts. It looks like I may need to write another letter, to Mme Archimbaud.

Mme Archimbaud thinks that using less palm oil will help the environment? Wrong. Palm oil is the world’s most efficient oilseed crop. It produces far more oils per hectare compared to any other oilseed (10 times more than soybean). Put another way, palm oil uses 10 times less land. So: the Senator’s ideas would lead to more land being cleared, more land being converted from nature into agriculture.

Mme Archimbaud is also very concerned about malnutrition. Palm oil is one of the world’s greatest solutions to malnutrition. It is the main cooking oil – and a key staple of calories – across the developing world. In India, in Africa, in Pakistan, in South-East Asia: people get major energy, vitamins, and nutrients from palm oil. Criticising palm oil without knowing how important it is for people in the developing world is very unwise.

Small farmers rely on palm oil – in Africa, and in Asia. In Malaysia, 40 per cent of the plantations are small farmers; in many African countries, such as Nigeria, the percentage is even higher. Lazy criticism of palm oil is really criticism of small farmers in poor countries. Lazy attempts to harm palm oil, will actually end up harming families in poor communities in Africa.

The Malaysian Palm Oil Council has recently launched an education campaign in France, to give consumers some more information on the facts about palm oil. It may be worth Senator Archimbaud taking a look at the website!

 

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Pierre Bois D’Enghien The Oil Palm

Les Verts suggèrent de nuire à l’environnement

Des nouvelles intéressantes de Paris : les sénateurs Verts ont proposé un amendement qui pourrait en fait nuire à l’environnement, entraîner la perte de terres forestières et affecter les personnes pauvres dans les pays en développement.

La sénatrice écologiste Aline Archimbaud a présenté des amendements à la Loi Santé critiquant l’huile de palme. Elle précise que l’amendement servirait à protéger l’environnement et à aider à résoudre les problèmes de malnutrition, sous-nutrition et autres qui touchent les plus pauvres.

Malheureusement, ce n’est qu’une tentative de facilement marquer des points sur le plan politique car les affirmations sont tout simplement fausses. Cela avait également été prouvé par le ministre Ségolène Royal, après ses commentaires malvenus contre le Nutella. J’avais écrit à la ministre à l’époque, pour expliquer pourquoi elle avait tort.

Madame la Ministre Ségolène Royal a finalement compris son erreur ; elle a accepté qu’elle avait eu tort sur les faits. Il semble bien que je pourrais avoir besoin d’écrire une autre lettre, à Mme Archimbaud.

Mme Archimbaud pense que l’utilisation de moins d’huile de palme va aider l’environnement. C’est faux. L’huile de palme est la culture oléagineuse la plus efficace du monde. Elle produit beaucoup plus d’huile par hectare que n’importe quel autre oléagineux (10 fois plus que le soja). Autrement dit, l’huile de palme utilise 10 fois moins de terres. Donc les idées du sénateur conduiraient à plus de terres défrichées, plus de terres converties pour l’agriculture au détriment de la nature.

Mme Archimbaud est également très préoccupée par la malnutrition. L’huile de palme est l’un des meilleures solutions contre la malnutrition. C’est l’huile de cuisson principale – et une importante source calorique – des pays en voie de développement. En Inde, en Afrique, au Pakistan, en Asie du Sud-Est… les gens obtiennent une large part de leur énergie, leurs vitamines et nutriments de l’huile de palme. Critiquer l’huile de palme, sans savoir combien elle est importante pour les populations de ces pays, est très imprudent.

En Afrique et en Asie, les petits agriculteurs comptent sur l’huile de palme. En Malaisie, 40 pour cent des plantations sont celles de petits agriculteurs; dans de nombreux pays africains comme au Nigeria, le pourcentage est encore plus élevé. Cette basse critique de l’huile de palme est finalement une critique des petits agriculteurs dans les pays pauvres. Ces tentatives de nuire à l’huile de palme finiront juste par nuire aux familles dans les communautés pauvres d’Afrique.

Le Conseil malaisien d’huile de palme a récemment lancé une campagne d’information en France, pour donner aux consommateurs des informations supplémentaires sur l’huile de palme. Peut être que la sénatrice Archimbaud devrait y jeter un œil!

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Authors Pierre Bois D’Enghien

A Campaign to Inform Consumers About Palm Oil

After many years of working closely on the ecology and economy of agricultural products and farming – especially in the developing world – it is encouraging to see that Belgian and French consumers will be learning more about palm oil in the coming months. A new communications campaign has been launched by the Malaysian Palm Oil community, with the aim of providing facts to consumers.

I have worked closely on palm oil-related issues in Africa, where it is a crop of great importance – socially, economically, and environmentally. This is equally true in Malaysia. Contrary to the common belief that large plantations dominate oil palm cultivation, it is small farmers who account for 40-60% of production of palm oil in emerging countries, including 300,000 in Malaysia alone. The positive social consequences of this are enormous – reduced poverty, higher living standards, property rights, development of rural communities, and so on.

Three young students from France and Belgium recently visited Malaysia to discover these facts, and many others I am sure. The new Malaysian campaign explains what the students found – what I already knew from many years in the industry – that palm oil is a great source of prosperity and wellbeing in rural communities, a truth that is often hidden here in Europe.

The reasons why oil palm has been chosen by so many farmers in Africa and Asia is very simple: it is a perennial crop and has the highest yield of oil per unit area when compared to other crops – it yields between 7 and 10 times more oil per hectare than competing oil plants. Moreover, it doesn’t require too much of investments in technical equipment making at an ideal option for small farmers.

The misinformation about palm oil in Europe can jeopardize small farmers’ livelihoods, and the many services which are developed close to oil palm plantations: housing, schools, roads and health care facilities. A hectare of land under oil palm cultivation can generate 1,000 to 3,000 dollars per year, contributing significantly to rural poverty alleviation.

The campaign is also focusing on palm oil’s role in biodiversity and forest conservation. Malaysia has conserved over 50% of land cover as forests – a commitment significantly greater than developed nations. This commitment was made back in 1992 at the Rio Earth Summit, and the United Nations confirms that this promise is still being met today.

Discover the positive story of Malaysian Palm Oil on economic success and environmental protection here – www.malaysianpalmoil.info

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Pierre Bois D’Enghien The Oil Palm

Une campagne pour informer les consommateurs sur l’huile de palme

Après de nombreuses années à travailler en étroite collaboration sur l’écologie et l’économie des produits agricoles et de l’agriculture – en particulier dans les pays en voie de développement – il est encourageant de voir que les consommateurs belges et français vont en apprendre davantage sur l’huile de palme dans les prochains mois. Afin de leur apporter des faits, une nouvelle campagne de communication a été lancée par la communauté d’huile de palme de Malaisie.

Je l’ai travaillé en étroite collaboration sur les questions liées à l’huile de palme en Afrique, où c’est une culture d’une grande importance d’un point de vue social, économique et écologique. Ceci est également vrai en Malaisie. Contrairement à la croyance commune que de grandes plantations d’huile dominent la culture du palmier, ce sont les petits agriculteurs qui représentent 40-60% de la production d’huile de palme dans les pays émergents, dont 300.000 uniquement en Malaisie. Les conséquences sociales positives sont énormes – réduction de la pauvreté, du niveau de vie, les droits de propriété, le développement des communautés rurales, et ainsi de suite.

Trois jeunes étudiants de France et de Belgique ont récemment visité la Malaisie à la découverte de ces faits, et bien d’autres j’en suis sûr. La nouvelle campagne malaisienne explique ce que les élèves ont trouvé – ce que je savais déjà depuis de nombreuses années dans l’industrie – que l’huile de palme est une grande source de prospérité et de bien-être dans les collectivités rurales, une vérité qui est souvent cachée ici en Europe.

Les raisons pour lesquelles l’huile de palme a été choisie par de nombreux agriculteurs en Afrique et en Asie est très simple: c’est une culture pérenne et dont le rendement en huile par unité de surface est le plus haut, par rapport à d’autres cultures – il donne entre 7 et 10 fois plus de pétrole par hectare que les plantes oléagineuses concurrence. En outre, il ne nécessite pas trop d’investissements en matériel technique, en faisant une option idéale pour les petits agriculteurs.

La désinformation sur l’huile de palme en Europe peut mettre en péril les moyens de subsistance des petits agriculteurs, et les nombreux services qui sont développés à proximité des plantations de palmiers à huile: le logement, les écoles, les routes et les installations de santé. Un hectare de terre pour la production d’huile de palme peut générer entre 1.000 et 3.000 dollars par an, contribuant de manière significative à la réduction de la pauvreté rurale.

La campagne se concentre également sur le rôle de l’huile de palme dans la biodiversité et la conservation des forêts. La Malaisie a conservé plus de 50% de forêts – un engagement significativement plus important que celui des pays développés. Cet engagement a été pris en 1992 au Sommet de la Terre de Rio, et les Nations Unies confirment que cette promesse est encore tenue aujourd’hui.

Découvrez l’histoire de Malaysian Palm Oil sur la réussite économique et la protection de l’environnement ici – www.huiledepalmedemalaisie.info

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Authors Pierre Bois D’Enghien

Shifting to Oil Palm

What leads a farmer to become small oil palm planter?

In improving the living conditions of farmers, perennial cash crops occupy a prominent place.
The plantations of cocoa, rubber, coffee and palm oil are well suited to agricultural development, and when they are owned and managed by small independent farmers, their impact on the economy of a country can be fundamental. We also attributed to them the development of countries like Côte d’Ivoire, Malaysia and Indonesia for this private sector development programs.

However, small farmers have a preference for oil palm. Unlike cocoa or coffee, oil palm produces the entire year, with very little variation over time, and thus ensures a virtually stable monthly income to the farmer.

In Malaysia, an hectare of oil palm makes between 1,000 and 3,000 USD / year to its owner (depending on market prices). As the recommended minimum surface area is 4 hectares, a small farmer can earn income from 4000 to 12,000 $ / year, while the minimum wage in Malaysia is a little over 200 $ / month or 2,400 $ / year.

Touching most times, at least twice the statutory minimum wage, he can reasonably expect to get out of poverty and join the rural middle class.

The cultivation of oil palm requires very little technical skills and, unlike rubber, is available to all the villagers even without training. Harvesting and maintenance do not require expensive equipment, investments to start are low and accessible to the greatest number.

Almost all palm diseases can be defeated with integrated and mechanical tools; the low use of plant protection products does not make the small farmer dependent on external suppliers.

Besides the harvest that has to be delivered within 24 hours and a rare insect attack that must be treated immediately, all agricultural operations can be performed in a spread time that do not require immediate responsiveness; the worker has great flexibility in its work, unlike annual crops.

Oil growing is a real trigger for development and growth in the most remote and disadvantaged areas in tropical countries.

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Pierre Bois D’Enghien The Oil Palm

Passer au palmier à huile

Qu’est-ce qui amène un paysan à devenir petit planteur de palmier à huile ?

Dans l’amélioration des conditions de vie des paysans, les cultures de rente pérennes occupent une place de choix.

Les plantations de cacaoyers, de caoutchouc, de café ou de palmiers à huile se prêtent bien à ce développement agricole et, quand elles détenues et gérées par de petits agriculteurs indépendants, leur impact sur l’économie d’un pays peut être fondamental. On attribue d’ailleurs le développement de pays comme la Côte d’Ivoire, la Malaisie ou l’Indonésie aux programmes de développement de ce secteur privé.

Les petits planteurs ont toutefois une préférence pour le palmier à huile ; en effet, contrairement au cacao ou au café, le palmier à huile produit toute l’année, avec très peu de variations au cours du temps, et assure ainsi un revenu mensuel quasiment stable à l’agriculteur.

En Malaisie, un hectare de palmier rapporte entre 1.000 et 3.000 USD/an (selon les cours) à son propriétaire. Comme la superficie minimale recommandée est de 4ha, le petit planteur peut obtenir un revenu de 4.000 à 12.000 USD/an alors que le salaire minimal en Malaisie est d’un peu plus de 200 USD/mois ou 2.400 USD/an.

En touchant la plupart du temps, au moins deux fois le salaire minimal légal, il peut raisonnablement espérer sortir de la pauvreté et intégrer la classe moyenne rurale.

La culture du palmier à huile demande très peu de technicité et, contrairement au caoutchouc, est accessible pour tous les villageois même sans formation. La récolte et les entretiens ne demandent pas d’outillage onéreux, les investissements pour débuter sont faibles et accessibles au plus grand nombre.

Quasiment toutes les maladies du palmier peuvent être combattues avec des moyens intégrés et mécaniques ; la faible utilisation de produits phytosanitaires ne rend pas le petit planteur dépendant de fournisseurs extérieurs.

A part la récolte qui doit être livrée dans les 24 heures et une rare attaque d’insecte qui doit être traitée sans délai, toutes les opérations agricoles peuvent être réalisées dans un temps étalé et ne demandent pas une réactivité immédiate ; le travailleur a une grande flexibilité dans ses travaux, contrairement aux cultures annuelles.

L’élaéiculture est donc un vrai déclencheur de développement et de croissance dans les zones les plus reculées et défavorisées des pays tropicaux.

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Authors Pierre Bois D’Enghien

Daily life of a farmer

24 hours with a farmer: an overview of the agricultural activities

As 3 million people around the world, a small farmer gets up early, before sunrise, in order to work on his field while it is fresh. Since the area of his plantation – 4 hectares – is adapted to his own work capacity, his wife can take care of the household or do the jobs that she likes.

The farmer then leaves the house to go on his plantation, by bike or walk because his plantation is never far from his home.

The planter will only reap its fruits the day the truck of the factory passes to collect them (the truck comes every 4-5 days). Other days, he will perform maintenance as weeding, applying needed fertilisers, pruning, etc. The planter starts harvesting, line by line, ripe crops.

The harvesting is done in different phases: the regime cut, cut the fruit stalk, pick up the loose fruit to the fronds of the swath, set the regimes in the wheelbarrow and the detached fruit and transporting all on the pickup area at the edge of the road.

Around 9 am, the planter takes a break and his second breakfast. At 9:30, he returns to finish the harvest around eleven.

By late morning, the truck from the factory comes to provide him the residuals, whose volume corresponds to the waste produced during machining of its crops; it may well spread them on his plantation and maintain soil fertility and soil structure.

By early afternoon, after delivering the residuals in other neighbouring small farmers, the factory truck starts the collection on a scheduled basis. Production is weighted when loading and planter receives a ticket who states the received tonnage.

In the afternoon, during the hottest hours of the day; the planter rests or, goes to meetings with the technical supervisors or managers of the factory that buys the fruit.

By late afternoon, he will pass quickly on his small nursery for watering and monitoring the health of its plants. He can now spend the evening with his family.